In the 17th century, the visual arts of Europe continued to be shaped by the political, social and cultural convulsions that had broken out during the Protestant Reformation. This course examines the impact of changing religious practices, concerns and controversies in early modern Europe, with a focus on the second half of the 16th Century and the first half of the 17th. We will examine the phenomenon of iconoclasm, and the emergence of religious images that responded to specifically Protestant concerns. South of the Alps and Pyrenees, we will look at the concerns surrounding the sacred image in Catholic societies as its religious functions became increasingly hard to reconcile with its artistic qualities, at the impact of the Catholic Reformation, censorship, mystic visions, naturalism, and the development of the Baroque style. Artists covered include Michelangelo, Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, Rubens and Bernini.